2015, around 350 million tonnes of plastic waste were generated world‐ wide. In total, 14 per cent was collected for material recovery -- 8 per cent was recycled into plastic of lower quality, and 2 per cent to plastics of simi‐ lar quality as the original. Around 4 per cent was lost in the process.
Thunman, H., Berdugo Vilches, T., Seemann, M., Maric, J., Vela, I. C., Pissot, S., & Nguyen, H. N. T. (2019). Circular use of plastics-transformation of existing petrochemical clusters into thermochemical recycling plants with 100% plastics recovery. Sustainable Materials and Technologies, 22, e00124.
Summary of research from 2016, specifically oriented towards replacing oil by biological products:
Morales, M., Ataman, M., Badr, S., Linster, S., Kourlimpinis, I., Papadokonstantakis, S., … Hungerbühler, K. (2016). Sustainability assessment of succinic acid production technologies from biomass using metabolic engineering. Energy & Environmental Science, 9(9), 2794–2805.
Siankevich, S., Fei, Z., Scopelliti, R., Jessop, P. G., Zhang, J., Yan, N., & Dyson, P. J. (2016). Direct Conversion of Mono- and Polysaccharides into 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Using Ionic-Liquid Mixtures. ChemSusChem, 9(16), 2089–2096.
"it might be still very attractive to integrate biomass processing in traditional refineries as a way to upgrade conventional refineries and this represents a modern systems version of a retrofit problem. " (p 20)
"The oil and syngas platforms in particular represent a number of opportunities of processing biomass or biomass-derived intermediates by utilizing existing petrochemical facilities, such as oil cracking, hydrotreating, gasification, and chemical synthesis. The resulting products include gasoline, diesel, olefins, alcohols, acids, waxes, and many other commodity chemicals derivable from syngas." (p 20)
"Insofar biorefineries create a process chain that adds biomass as a resource alternative to coal, crude oil, or natural gas in order to create C2-, C3-, or C4-base chemical platforms" (p 20)
"The increased usage of shale gas changes the ratio between C2, C3, and C4 building blocks produced and might create extra potential for biomass-derived C4 building blocks (e.g., succinic acid and butanediol)"
Technical review of chemical pathways starting from lignine (Universite Clermont-Auvergne):
Tribot, A., Amer, G., Abdou Alio, M., De Baynast, H., Delattre, C., Pons, A., … Dussap, C.-G. (2019). Wood-lignin: Supply, extraction processes and use as bio-based material. European Polymer Journal, 112.
Interesting international platform: Energy Agency - Bioenergy Task 42', workprogramme of the coming years: